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Understanding Endocrinology - An Overview (Thyroid & diabetes)

Understanding Endocrinology - An Overview (Thyroid & diabetes)

Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system, which is responsible for regulating hormones. 


Changes in the body, both natural and unnatural, can impact the endocrine system. In addition to naturopathic and herbal medicine and prescription drugs like opioids or steroids, environmental factors that affect the endocrine system include puberty, aging, pregnancy, heredity, and certain disorders.

Disruptions in the functions of the Endocrine can be caused by:

  • Birth or genetic abnormalities
  • Chemo, radiation, or surgery
  • Traumatism
  • Tumours (cancerous and benign)
  • Infection
  • Autoimmune destruction (immune system attacks own organs)
  • Drugs/Supplements


The normal endocrine function is to produce hormones in a balance, neither too much nor too little. 

You have to Consult a Endocrinologist to address the below-listed concerns immediately and Assurance can help you seek a specialist. 


Stressors can be physical or mental and can affect the heart, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Physical stresses are the most important triggers of the stress response, and the adrenal glands release more cortisol to help the body respond to such stress. The inaction of the adrenal glands can be fatal. 

Some medically significant stressors include:

  • Severe sickness or infection.
  • Extreme surgical heat or cold.
  • Ailment.
  • Allergens.
  • Emotional, social, and economic stress do not require significant quantities of cortisol to survive.


Genes can impact your endocrine system as genetic units called chromosomes to get passed down from parent to child. The normal chromosomal count is 46, and the sex chromosomal pair is the 23rd. Extra, damaged, or missing chromosomes can cause illnesses that alter hormone production or function.

Thyroid Hormones:

Thyroid gland release two primary hormones: T3 (tri-iodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). A healthy thyroid produces roughly 80% T4 and approximately 20% T3, with T3 being the stronger of the two. 

Thyroid Disorders & Diseases:

Numerous diseases and abnormalities of the thyroid are related to a variety of factors, including injury, sickness, or nutritional insufficiency. In a majority of situations, the following issues can be found:

  • Excessive or insufficient production of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, respectively).
  • Abnormal thyroid growth 
  • Thyroid nodules or masses
  • Cancer of the thyroid


A goiter is a neck bulge. Hyperthyroidism is caused by a toxic goiter, whereas iodine shortage causes a non-toxic goiter which is also referred to as a simple or endemic goiter. 


Hyperthyroidism results from abnormally high levels of thyroid hormone. Individuals with hyperthyroidism are frequently hypersensitive to heat, energetic, and overeat. Goiter is a condition that can occur because of hyperthyroidism. This is caused by an overactive thyroid and irritated tissues.


Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder defined by an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. The condition is referred to as cretinism in babies and is associated with several serious adverse effects, including faulty bone development and mental retardation. Adults with hypothyroidism may feel increased sensitivity to cold, decreased appetite, and general sluggishness. Hypothyroidism frequently remains undiagnosed for years before it is discovered.

Solitary thyroid nodules:

Lump-like nodules are relatively common, and in fact, more than half of the population will have a thyroid nodule. Most nodules are noncancerous, and a fine needle aspiration biopsy suffices to determine the malignant status of the lesion.

Thyroid cancer:

Thyroid cancer is reasonably frequent, albeit it has excellent long-term survival rates. Occasionally, persons with thyroid cancer experience hoarseness, neck pain, and swollen lymph nodes. Thyroid cancer can strike anyone at any age, while it is most common in women and those over thirty.

Thyroiditis/Thyroid disorder:

Thyroidtis is a condition in which the thyroid gland is inflamed and may be associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Inflammation can cause the death of thyroid cells, rendering the thyroid incapable of producing enough hormones to sustain normal metabolism. There are five distinct forms of thyroiditis, and each requires a unique treatment.

Diabetes diseases & complications:

Diabetes is a condition developed when the pancreas, the gland beneath the stomach, does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively absorb the insulin. Insulin helps in sugar transport via the bloodstream to the cells, taking up to synthesize energy. This energy powers a large number of our bodily activities.

Type 1 diabetes:

It develops when the pancreas fails to enough insulin. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to compensate for the insulin their bodies are unable to produce and it can strike anyone at any age. Assurance provides a Diabetes Disease Management Program which helps you manage this condition effectively. 

Type 2 diabetes:

It is the most prevalent type of the disease, accounting for at least 90–95 % of diabetic cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin's action, which means that the cells do not take up sugar. If you are overweight, have a family history of diabetes, or have a history of diabetes during pregnancy, you are more likely to acquire type 2 diabetes. Try the Assurance Diabetes Disease Management Program which gives you a detailed plan of action of type 2 disease management. 

Gestational Diabetes:

It occurs during pregnancy and can have serious side effects if not treated. Because gestational diabetes frequently manifests without symptoms, the majority of pregnant women are tested for blood sugar abnormalities throughout their pregnancy. Pregnant women develop Gestational Diabetes in about 3–5% of cases. Gestational diabetes is more prevalent in women with a family history of Diabetes and obese women. Although gestational Diabetes normally resolves after the baby is born, more than half of women who get gestational diabetes later in life develop type 2 diabetes. 

Monogenic Diabetes:

It is a rarer type of Diabetes in which the condition is inherited.


It is diagnosed when the blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be labelled as Diabetes. This condition is one on the track of developing heart diseases, increasing the risk of stroke, and finally, type 2 diabetes over time. Unfortunately, prediabetes signs are difficult to detect, which means many people have the illness without realizing it. Diabetes Disease Management Program is one such initiative you should take to tackle the prediabetic condition and prevent its progression. 

How can Assurance help me?

Assurance by NanoHealth provides Disease Management Programs, including PCOD care, infertility, Heart care, etc.


Why us? Our AI-driven initiative helps timely identification, diagnosis, and treatment by pairing you with the right care providers. 

Our disease care management programs include: 

  1. Regular interactions with your health coach for treatment adherence. 
  2. Periodic doctor consultations to ensure effective treatment. 
  3. Routine blood tests to track the progress and improvements.

Assurance is with you every step of the way until maximum health and wellness are achieved.